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Surprisingly enough, a 'gravy train' was never a rush to a roast dinner, and 'making a mint' never freshened your breath.

In and across the English language, there are many phrases and sayings that we still use every day with strange meanings - and even stranger origins. If you're curious as to why we 'bring home the bacon' and 'push the boat out', then find all your answers below, courtesy of Vouchercloud.


Ballpark Figure

A Bird in the Hand (is Worth Two in the Bush)

Born With a Silver Spoon in your Mouth

Breadwinner

Break the Bank

Bringing Home the Bacon

Cash Cow

Feeling Flush

Feel the Pinch

Getting your Finger Burned/Burnt

Fool's Gold

Going Dutch

A Grand

Gravy Train

Grease Someone's Palm

Kickback

Living on the Breadline

Make a Mint

Making Dough

Money for Old Rope

A Monkey

My Two Cents

Nest Egg

Overheads

Paid Peanuts

Paying Through the Nose

Piggy Bank

A Pony

Pretty Penny

Pushing the Boat Out

Put Paid To

Simoleons

Skinflint

Smackers/Smackeroonies

Tuppence Worth/Two Pennies Worth

Two Bobs Worth

Wheeler Dealer

Whip Round

Wonga


Ballpark Figure

The Definition - What Does 'Ballpark Figure' Mean?

An educated guess at a figure; a rough but considered estimate.

The Origin - Where does 'Ballpark Figure' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1950s

Despite all the logical explanations related to the actual sport of Baseball, the origins of the term a "ballpark figure" actually began with the U.S. Military and NASA.

A "Ballpark Figure" simply refers to the fact that, during a landing test/missile test/splashdown, a single point was far too inaccurate (and optimistic) to use as a target, and instead a designated territory is more appropriate - not unlike the iconic grassy area of a baseball field when seen from above.

A "ballpark figure" would be given instead, which quickly evolved to become a term used in business too (as early as the 1960s).


A Bird in the Hand is Worth Two in the Bush

The Definition - What Does 'A Bird in the Hand' Mean?

To be satisfied with what you have, rather than taking a risk and potentially losing out entirely.

The Origin - Where does 'A Bird in the Hand' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1400s

This one isn't quite as simple as you'd expect. Of course, it is pretty difficult to catch wild birds and therefore having one in your hand is definitely much more valuable, but that's besides the point.

The true origin of the phrase "A Bird in the Hand is Worth Two in the Bush" dates back to medieval falconry, where the bird in your hand - a bird of prey, and an expert hunter - was always worth more than any two birds out in the wild (the prey). However, the term also appeared in 13th Century Latin (referring to 'In the Woods' rather than 'in the Bush'.

Bird in the Hand


Born With a Silver Spoon in Your Mouth

The Definition - What Does 'Silver Spoon' Mean?

Someone born into a life of luxury, or with a great amount of inherited wealth.

The Origin - Where does 'Silver Spoon' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/United States
Date: 1800s

Back in the medieval days, the majority of cutlery was wooden. Aristocracy and the higher classes, however, were lucky enough to own and use metal spoons, with a silver spoon often being a gift from wealthy godparents to their godchildren at their Christening.

Being "born with a silver spoon in your mouth" suggested that you arrived in the world with this kind of status symbol already on show, born into a life of relative luxury.


Breadwinner

The Definition - What Does 'Breadwinner' Mean?

Someone who works and earns money for their family; typically the sole or primary earner.

The Origin - Where does 'Breadwinner' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1820s

Despite some definitions suggesting that in the early 1820s, workers were often paid in bread rather than in currency, the term actually has very simple origins.

The "breadwinner" became such because, across the 19th Century, bread was a staple food item for many families, and the "breadwinner" was simply the family member who brought home the money and, therefore, brought home the bread.


Break the Bank

The Definition - What Does 'Break the Bank' Mean?

To use all of your money; to spend everything.

The Origin - Where does 'Break the Bank' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1600s

"Break the bank" has nothing to do with bank robberies or glitched online accounts - it isn't even about a bank at all.

The origins of "break the bank" are actually to do with gambling, and the unlikely occurrence that a gambler wins more money than a casino or establishment has available in the building.

Bringing Home the Bacon

The Definition - What Does 'Bringing Home the Bacon' Mean?

Someone who works and earns money for their family; typically the sole or primary earner.

The Origin - Where does 'Bringing Home the Bacon' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/United States
Date: 1100s/1500s/1900s

Despite being such a wonderful phrase, the origins of the term "Bringing Home the Bacon" are still disputed.

The most commonly received explanation of where "bringing home the bacon" comes from builds upon 'bacon' being a slang term for one's body. Associating your ability to earn money and make a living with the health of your body led to 'bacon' gaining that connotation too. Boxing was a great example of earning a living using your body, and the most frequently documented uses of the phrase come out of the sport of boxing throughout the early 20th Century.

Others believe that 12th Century England holds the truth, with the town of Great Dunmow in Essex hosting an annual competition where a 'flitch' of bacon would be offered to married couples who evidenced true marital devotion. Any man who showed he had not argued with his wife for a year and a day would, literally, bring home the bacon, in honour of a local couple who inspired the tradition years before - with a display of marital prowess to the mayor so wonderful, it truly deserved a meaty reward.

Alternately, some believe that the origins of 'Bringing Home the Bacon' belong to the 1500s, with country fairs across England hosting a traditional 'greased pig' competition. Long story short, this involved chasing wildly after a greased pig, with the winner being able to keep the slippery swine. That's a whole lot of bacon to bring home.

Bringing Home the Bacon


Cash Cow

The Definition - What Does 'Cash Cow' Mean?

Something that continuously and consistently earns and will earn good money.

The Origin - Where does 'Cash Cow' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1960s

This simply reflects the hard-working nature of the dairy cow, which is notorious for being able to produce milk without complaint for a long period of time. A "cash cow" will do the same but with a financial return, hence its usage in big business today (think the iPod).


Feeling Flush

The Definition - What Does 'Feeling Flush' Mean?

To be in possession of a lot of money; to suddenly feel rich or extravagant.

The Origin - Where does 'Feeling Flush' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/United States
Date: Unknown

Despite the expected poker connotations (with a 'Flush' being a strong hand and a 'Royal Flush' being the strongest possible hand), the origins of "Feeling Flush" actually grow out of the connotations of the more menial meaning of the word.

Flush, meaning embarrassed or a reddening of the skin, and to flush, spraying with water (yes, like a toilet), translated across to money to show that you are suddenly with the realisation that you have a good amount of money, and feel pretty damn good about it.

Take this meaning of flush as the perfect example: "to flow suddenly and abundantly, as from containment" just like money escaping from your bank balance.


Feel the Pinch

The Definition - What Does 'Feel the Pinch' Mean?

To be under financial hardship.

The Origin - Where does 'Feel the Pinch' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1400s

A la a pincer, to be "in a pinch" literally means to feel the squeeze - or feel under (financial) pressure.

The word 'pinch' was increasingly associated with money in the 14th Century, when 'to pinch' became a slang term for stealing, or simply being a bit stingy (to 'pinch pennies').


Getting your Fingers Burned/Burnt

The Definition - What Does 'Fingers Burned' Mean?

To suffer unpleasant consequences as a result of your actions, especially pertaining to a loss of money.

The Origin - Where does 'Fingers Burned' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/United States
Date: Unknown

This saying follows some pretty sensible conventions - if you play with fire, you get your "fingers burned", suggesting that playing dangerously can see you suffer severe consequences. However, it's not clear when getting your "fingers burnt" became a term most commonly associated with losing money or risking your finances.


Fool's Gold

The Definition - What Does 'Fool's Gold' Mean?

Something mistakenly believed to be full of potential or potential reward.

The Origin - Where does 'Fool's Gold' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/United States
Date: 1800s

"Fool's Gold" is the name given to iron pyrites, which look a bit like gold but are worth little-to-nothing - as explorer Martin Frobisher discovered in the late 1500s when he returned to England from the North-West passage with reams of the stuff.

The origins of the term "fool's gold' grew out of this, becoming a term used to describe anything inappropriately assigned a great value.

Fools Gold


Going Dutch

The Definition - What Does 'Going Dutch' Mean?

To split evenly, most commonly used when settling a bill.

The Origin - Where does 'Going Dutch' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1600s

In the 17th Century (when Holland and Great Britain weren't the best of friends) the Dutch were mocked for being stingy or ungenerous.

Therefore, as opposed to being chivalrous men and paying for a meal, the Dutch would allow the lady to pay her share when on a date or going for a meal, otherwise known as "going Dutch".

So, to summarise, the origins of "going Dutch" grew out of casual racism.


A Grand

The Definition - What Does 'A Grand' Mean?

A slang/colloquial term for one thousand pounds or dollars.

The Origin - Where does 'A Grand' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1900s

One thousand of anything is a pretty wonderful amount. In fact, the origins of "a grand" referring to one thousand pounds or dollars simply grew out of referring to it as a 'grand amount of money'.

The term grew into British use during WWII, where it was even abbreviated to a 'G' or 'G-note'.


Gravy Train

The Definition - What Does 'Gravy Train' Mean?

A situation where lots of money can be made for little-to-no effort.

The Origin - Where does 'Gravy Train' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1920s

Sadly, this term has nothing to do with the delicious Roast Dinner staple. 'Gravy' became a slang term for easy or ill-gotten money in the early 20th Century (think poker winnings, or perhaps something more illegal).

Railroad workers in the 1920s adopted the term to refer to an easy but high-paying run - therefore riding the "gravy train".


Grease Someone's Palm

The Definition - What Does 'Grease Someone's Palm' Mean?

To offer a bribe, or an incentive (often underhanded, or sneaky).

The Origin - Where does 'Grease Someone's Palm' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1920s

Offering a sneaky bribe or incentivising someone with money will often be done to ensure that everything goes to plan.

The origin of "grease someone's palm" is akin to this, simply suggesting that, similar to oiling up or greasing mechanical parts of machine, putting some money forward will ensure everything runs smoothly - so to speak.


Kickback

The Definition - What Does 'Kickback' Mean?

Money handed over as payment in a secret, dishonest or illegal business deal.

The Origin - Where does 'Kickback' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1920s

"Kickback" has a fairly literal meaning, with a portion of the money being made from whatever illegal scheme is ongoing being 'kicked back' to a certain guilty party as payment for services rendered.

Think of a dirty bag of money being kicked along the floor in a cowboy movie.


Living on the Breadline

The Definition - What Does 'Living on the Breadline' Mean?

Barely Scraping By, or Surviving on Minimal Income.

The Origin - Where does 'Living on the Breadline' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1820s

The 'breadline' was literally a queue for free food handed out by the US government in the 1820s.

Living 'in' the breadline evolved to 'on' or 'below' as it became a term to describe living in borderline poverty, especially in the UK.


Make a Mint

The Definition - What Does 'Make a Mint' Mean?

To be making a lot of money, often quickly or efficiently.

The Origin - Where does 'Make a Mint' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: Unknown ('Mint' as a term dates back to the 1600s)

A mint is the official title for the building/place where coins and currency for a specific country are manufactured.

To be "making a mint" simply means to be essentially coining your own money, or in short, making an awful lot fairly quickly.


Making Dough

The Definition - What Does 'Living on the Breadline' Mean?

Making money or cash, or earning well.

The Origin - Where does 'Living on the Breadline' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1850s

This is simply a derivative of being the 'breadwinner' - "making dough" evolved to mean you were making money just as 'bread' did. You just have to bake it first.


Money for Old Rope

The Definition - What Does 'Money for Old Rope' Mean?

Gaining money for nothing; being rewarded for very little effort.

The Origin - Where does 'Money for Old Rope' Come From?

Country of Origin: UK
Date: 1800s

The origins of this term are disputed, primarily because there are a wide range of rather wonderful explanations.

The commonly received definition of "money for old rope" dates back to the seafaring Victorian days, where hemp ropes had a limited lifetime and, as a result, the rope fibres (known as 'oakum') were recycled. These rope fibres were hammered into the gaps between planks on a ship to aid in the waterproofing process ('caulking'), and as a result, you could get some good money for that old rope (with workhouses also paying just enough money for a meal to those who actually picked the rope apart).

Another more morbid explanation of the term "Money for Old Rope" focuses on the act of public execution by hanging in Ye Olde England. With some fairly high profile names recieving the brutal sentence, the hangman alongside his other duties - was responsible for the rope and was obliged by law to keep it after the sentence was carried out.

However, everybody loves a souvenir, no matter how macabre - rumour has it that the executioner could make quite the pretty penny selling off pieces of the rope...


A Monkey

The Definition - What Does 'A Monkey' Mean?

Colloquial or Cockney Rhyming slang for £500

The Origin - Where does 'A Monkey' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/India
Date: 1900s

Although it's now a part of cockney rhyming slang, the origins of a "monkey" and a "pony" being used as financial terms are actually derived from English soldiers returning from India in the 1800s with 500 and 25 rupee notes, which featured the image of a monkey and a pony respectively.

This was then translated across to British currency when the novelty of the notes sank in.

A Monkey


My Two Cents

The Definition - What Does 'My Two Cents' Mean?

An opinion, or piece of advice, that is often unwelcome or in excess.

The Origin - Where does 'My Two Cents' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1920s

The origin of giving your "Two Cents' Worth" are assumed to be the same as the British counterpart, giving your "Tuppence Worth"/Two pennies' Worth")

Alternately, giving your "two cents worth" could come from betting in games such as poker, where you have to pay an ante before beginning play - once said to be two cents (though this detaches the meaning from its British equivalent of "two pennies' worth")


Nest Egg

The Definition - What Does 'Nest Egg' Mean?

An (large) amount of money saved for the future; often life savings.

The Origin - Where does 'Nest Egg' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/United States
Date: 1600s

A 'nest egg' or 'nest-egg' is a fake ceramic (or sometimes real) egg added into a hen's nest to encourage her to lay.

Although the connection is not completely clear, the origins of the modern term "nest egg" - meaning a sum of money tucked away in savings or for retirement - is said to have grown out of the assurance that a 'nest egg' would yield extra eggs for a farmer, meaning more money.

Using 'nest egg' to refer to a sum of money seemingly dates back to 1686, despite the use of nest eggs in chicken coops dating back to the 14th Century.


Overheads

The Definition - What Does 'Overheads' Mean?

The indirect costs of running a business, including the likes of rent and marketing; costs not involved in producing a product or delivering a service.

The Origin - Where does 'Overheads' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/United States
Date: 1910s

This is one of the more commonly used terms on a day-by-day basis, but has no clear and established origin.

It seems that the term "overheads" simply refers to the costs required to keep a roof over you (and your businesses') head, and has been used consistently throughout the 1900s and right through into modern day business.


The Definition - What Does 'Paid Peanuts' Mean?

To be paid very little; practically nothing.

The Origin - Where does 'Paid Peanuts' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1940s

Peanuts' was always a term used for something small or paltry (since 1840, in fact), but only came to be used as a financial term in the 1940s.

Essentially, peanuts are one of the smallest things that still derive any value - and 'if you pay peanuts, you only get monkeys' became a phrase that suggested that poor pay would only ever get you poor workers.

Getting Paid Peanuts


Paying Through the Nose

The Definition - What Does 'Paying Through the Nose' Mean?

To pay a high price, or pay dearly for something.

The Origin - Where does 'Paying Through the Nose' Come From?

Country of Origin: Ireland/Denmark
Date: 800s

The origins of "Paying through the nose" for something have much darker roots than most other financial terms.

When the Danish Vikings conquered the Irish in the 800s, they imposed ludicrous taxes on the residents. The punishment for not paying the newly imposed levies? Having your nose actually slit, from tip to eyebrow - hence giving us the modern paying through the nose.


Piggy Bank

The Definition - What Does 'Piggy Bank' Mean?

A traditional container for children's pocket-money and savings (often with the actual likeness of a pig).

The Origin - Where does 'Piggy Bank' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/Germany/China
Date: 1400s

The origins of the term "piggy bank" are again hotly disputed.

Many believe that back in the 1400s - before modern banks were a concept - people kept their money at home, often in common kitchen jars. These jars were made of cheap orange coloured clay named 'pygg' (actually pronounced 'pug' - and a 'pygg pot' was where many collected their leftover coinage. As pronunciation of the middle age 'y' evolved, 'pygg' clay and the animal were pronounced the same, with 'pygg banks' gradually gaining the visual appearance of their small, pink, porky namesake.

Others believe that piggy banks may have originated from China or Germany, where pigs have long-symbolised wealth and good fortune - making their likeness perfect for a money-saving-receptacle.

The explanation could be much simpler. Some simply believe that our change jars are fed the scraps and leftovers of our spending, similar to the way that we feed pigs scraps and leftovers.


A Pony

The Definition - What Does 'A Pony' Mean?

Colloquial or Cockney Rhyming slang for £25

The Origin - Where does 'A Pony' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/India
Date: 1900s

Although it's now a part of cockney rhyming slang, the origins of a "monkey" and a "pony" being used as financial terms are actually derived from English soldiers returning from India in the 1800s with 500 and 25 rupee notes, which featured the image of a monkey and a pony respectively.

This was then translated across to British currency when the novelty of the notes sank in.


Pretty Penny

The Definition - What Does 'Pretty Penny' Mean?

A large or considerable amount of money.

The Origin - Where does 'Pretty Penny' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1900s

The origins of "a pretty penny" are thought to hark back to the 13th Century, and special gold pennies coined by Henry III.

These special 1257 gold pennies - worth the equivalent of 20 silver pennies - were deemed, appropriately, to be the prettier of the two, given their far greater worth.


Pushing the Boat Out

The Definition - What Does 'Pushing the Boat Out' Mean?

A large or considerable amount of money.

The Origin - Where does 'Pushing the Boat Out' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1900s

Despite being clearly nautical, the origins of the term to "push the boat out" are disputed.

The more commonly accepted meaning focuses on the oft-discussed nautical pastime of drinking heavily. A 'pushing the boat out party' was seemingly used to describe a final hurrah before setting sail, or more generally to describe a sailor generously buying a round of drinks for him and his shipmates.

Some simply believe it was a generous act to help a sailor push his boat out to sea, which is something unsurprisingly difficult to do alone.This generosity is what lends itself to the modern usage of the term to "push the boat out".


Put Paid To

The Definition - What Does 'Put Paid To' Mean?

To finish something off; put a stop to.

The Origin - Where does 'Put Paid To' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/United States
Date: 1900s

The idea of "putting paid to" something sees its origins in bookkeeping or accountancy, where traditionally completed documents or bills were stamped with 'paid'. Therefore, you were putting paid - stamping, or writing it - to an item.


Simoleons

The Definition - What Does 'Simoleons' Mean?

Slang/colloquial term for a dollar/dollars.

The Origin - Where does 'Simoleons' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom/United States
Date: 1900s

Quite the story behind this one. In the early 1700s, a sixpence was referred to as a 'simon', (likely) named after an engraver at the Royal Mint called Thomas Simon who designed, among other things, the new sixpence.

That term 'Simon' travelled across the Atlantic, and some witty fellow combined the valuable gold 'Napoleon' coins with the 'simon' - hence giving us the modern day "Simoleons".


Skinflint

The Definition - What Does 'Skinflint' Mean?

A stingy person, someone who is reluctant to spend money.

The Origin - Where does 'Skinflint' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1690s

Flint is a semi-precious relative of Quartz, with the idea being that a "skinflint" would literally shave flint to try and make/save money.

The French instead actually say "tondre sur un oeuf", which means 'to shave an egg'.


Smackers/Smackeroonies

The Definition - What Does 'Smackers' Mean?

Slang/colloquial term for currency notes/bills.

The Origin - Where does 'Smackers' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1920s

The meaning of "smackers" or "smackeroonies" is a little more phonetic than most, with the term originating from the sound a note makes when literally being 'smacked' into the palm of your hand.


Tuppence Worth/Two Pennies Worth

The Definition - What Does 'Tuppence Worth' Mean?

An Opinion, or Piece of Advice, that is often unwelcome or in excess.

The Origin - Where does 'Tuppence Worth' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: Unknown

Despite the modern negative connotations, the phrases "Two Pennies' Worth"/"Tuppence Worth" have grown from quite humble, positive roots.

In the Bible, Mark 12:42, a widow offers 'two mites', copper coin equivalents, to a temple as a donation. This gift is so overwhelming compared to her personal wealth that Jesus praises her sacrifice over the rich benefactors who offered much more financially, hence your "two pennies' worth" offering more value than intended.

The origins of giving your "two pennies' worth" could alternately be wonderfully sarcastic, playing upon the phrase "a penny for your thoughts" - you were paid a penny for your thoughts, but gave your two pennies' worth instead.


Two Bobs Worth

The Definition - What Does 'Two Bobs Worth' Mean?

An Opinion, or Piece of Advice, that is often unwelcome or in excess.

The Origin - Where does 'Two Bobs Worth' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1900s

A 'bob' was a nickname for a Shilling - an outdated unit of currency from the UK - and became a slang term for a collection of money from a group, usually to buy a round of drinks.

Getting your "two bob's worth" then came to be an alternate version of the similar phrase "two pennies worth".


Wheeler Dealer

The Definition - What Does 'Wheeler Dealer' Mean?

An individual/the act of using everything at one's disposal to make a situation profitable; a grifter or grifting for financial gain.

The Origin - Where does 'Wheeler Dealer' Come From?

Country of Origin: United States
Date: 1900s

The origins of the term "wheeling and dealing" actually came from the motor trade, where advertisements for 'wheel deals' - great value cars - were commonplace in the 1930s (simply for the phonaesthetic appeal - good ol' rhyming).

This became a verb - "wheel and deal" - and evolved to usage beyond just the motor trade. Anyone who was a fan of offering a shrewd, and often not quite legit bargain, then became a "wheeler dealer".

A commonly shared but not as likely origin for "wheeling and dealing" comes from gambling, where one can 'wheel' (play roulette) or 'deal' (play cards) to attempt to turn a profit.


Whip Round

The Definition - What Does 'Whip Round' Mean?

A sporadic or impromptu collection of money from a group, often for an informal purpose (like a birthday gift).

The Origin - Where does 'Whip Round' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1800s

As with most terms with a British origin, the meaning behind a "whip round" is a little convoluted.

In the foxhunts of the 19th Century, 'whippers' were employed to keep the dogs in line, and this term itself extended to the House of Commons. The parliamentary 'whip' performs a similar job, keeping members of their elective party organised (and even 'whip up' enthusiasm for certain votes and policies).

Here's where the term "whip round" gets its meaning though; in the late 1800s, military officers in the British Army started using the term (more similar to its use in 'whipping up excitement/interest'). In officer's messes, the men often wanted more wine that was officially allocated - at which point an orderly would be sent to collect a small fee from those who wanted to continue drinking, to supplement the extra spend on alcohol.

This collection became known as a 'whip' itself, quickly becoming a 'whip round' both because of the informal collection and the act of buying a round of drinks with the funds collected.


Wonga

The Definition - What Does 'Wonga' Mean?

A slang or colloquial term for cash or money.

The Origin - Where does 'Wonga' Come From?

Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Date: 1980s

Wonga' is a term with romany origins, and is much more of a recent addition to the eclectic world of strange British financial terms.

The origins of the modern use of "wonga" are derived from the Romany word 'wongar', which means coal (with coal being a slang term for money itself throughout the 18th and 19th centuries).